Updates and Corrections

Page Topic Correct Statements
Air Regulations
7 Class I Medicals Validity is 12 months till age 40 yrs (for single pilot operations), & 60 yrs (for multi crew operations). After that 6 months.
7 Licence Validity Licence validity is 5 years. Beyond 5 years: (Not expiry of IR.PPC)
8 ADIZ India has 6 ADIZ: North, East, West, Centre, South and Sub-South East (Andaman & Nicobar).
10 Air regulations Definitions

VFR Rules: VFR flight not permitted 20 mins after sunset to 20 mins before sunrise.

VFR not permitted if cloud ceiling is at a height < 1550’.

At a height < 500’ above ground or water.

Over cities/gatherings of people, at a height < 1000’ AGL.

65 RVSM Diagram : On westerly heading Turning left descend 300’.
66 ETOPS

60 min for scheduled flights or 2 eng a/c with pax > 19, AUW > 45360kg.

90 min for non scheduled or 2 eng a/c with pax < 19, AUW < 45360kg.

92 FPL Item 15 If meters, insert ‘M’ in 10s of meters 4 figures, e.g. M0150.
Aerodynamics
101 TAS TAS = EAS/√ρ/ρ0.
105 Root Chord Definition: Root chord is Chord length at wing root.
106 AD Centre Diagram: Points A & B are interchanged.
108 Creation of lift Diagram: At 4° AoA has -ve pressure.
109 Lift Curve

As Aspect Ratio ↑, CL MAX ↑.

Lift vs CL graph for a +ve camber aerofoil intersect on left of origin.

101 LSS Formula: LSS = 39√T.
112 Induced Downawsh In conventional aircraft, downwash affects airflow over tailplane, hence ↓ stability. (Aircraft longitudinal stability)
112 Induced Drag Formula: CDI = CL2 / πAe
113 Induced Drag Induced drag DI is directly proportional to CL2.
115 Ground Effect Downwash over tail plane ↓ = nose pitch-down moment ↑.
117 Basic stall speed Landing gear DOWN ↑ stall speed due to ↑ tail down-force.
119 Pitch Up This results in moment-arm between CP and CG to decrease, thus causing even more pitch-up.
129 Stability All 3 stability is ‘about’; not ‘along’ the axes mentioned.
132 Lateral Stability Aerodynamic Damping in roll causes Neutral Stability.
131 Directional Stability Dorsal fins contribute to both directional and lateral static stability; Ventral fins contribute to directional static stability but reduces lateral static stability.
132 Wing Position Diagram: Labels of Anhedral & Dihedral are the other way around.
141 Descend Derivation: Power for minimum ROD Cotθ = L/D.
142 Steady Turn Rate of turn is inversely proportional to TAS.
Thrust Vectoring: Mig-29 doesn’t have thrust vectoring. Mig-35 has.
143 Wing Loading W/S wing loading must be minimum. Not S/W
143 Radius of turn Derivation: r = Vb2 / gSinθ.
143 Max rate of turn CPF = WV2/gr.
144 Range SAR directly proportional to 1.32 VIMD, and inversely proportional to √W, √ρ, SFC.
145 Supersonic AD As aircraft weight ↑, MCRIT ↓ due to increase in AoA.
Airframe
160 Miners rule 80% of ultimate stress collapses airframe.
Aero Engines
187 Turbofan Engine Corrected formula : VJ VA - VA2 + ½ VJ2 + ½ VA2 - VJ VA
190 Intake Diagram Label: 1. Critical operation, 3. Super critical operation
197 Combustion 15:1 air:fuel ratio.
209 Lubrication Parts of Engine Oil System incorrectly mentioned as 'Parts of Engine Fuel System'
Electrics
217 Current Current flowing in a circuit is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance.
Instruments
241 ASI Servo ASI, incorrectly mentioned as Servo Altimeter
242 LSS Formula: LSS = 39√T.
Radio & Nav Aids
270 Sidebands This full range of frequencies (899 kHz - 901 kHz).
271 Communication Sat. comm. Satellite receives signals on 6 GHz & re-transmits them on 1.5 GHz (for aircraft) & and on 4 GHz (for ground stations).
282 Localiser Fq Correct frequencies are 108.1, 108.15, 108.3…etc.
283 ILS Marker Middle marker corresponds to ILS CAT I DH
285 Radar Numerical Q. PRI is 1246 µs. Find max radar range?
Ans. Max Range = C x PRI / 2 = (3x108 x 1246x10-5) / 2 = 187 km
285 Range A continuous wave Radar has no minimum range limitation.
285 Radar Formula: Minimum Range = (C x PW)/2
286 Doppler radar 8.8 GHz or 13.3 GHz in SHF.
289 Weather Radar Weather radar scans ±60° of aircraft heading.
294 GBAS GBAS ground equipment can service, not GABS
294 GAGAN Correct Full form: GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation
296 EGPWS If radio altimeter is un-serviceable, basic GPWS & TCF functions are not available, but TAD is available.
297 EGPWS modes Bank angle readout is Mode 6B; not mode 7
Wind shear alert is mode 7; not mode 8.
300 ADS-B Title spelling: Dependent; not Depended. ADSB-in, not ABSB-in
301 CPDLC fill COM/CPDLC in items 10 & 18, not CPLDC.
Navigation
309 Time Numerical (2) explanation: From LMT at E to UTC, we calculate in westward direction, hence it is -W.
310 Magnetism Radial is QDR.
Deviation is the angle between CN & MN, measured E/W of MN
313 The Earth 1 nm is 6076.1’ (~6080’), 6048’ at the equator, 6108’ at poles
318 GEOREF Diagram Y axis, 12x15 deg boxes, not 15x15 deg boxes
320 Scale Numerical Q. On a Mercator chart, scale at 57° is 1:106, Find scale at 27°?
Ans. Scale at equator = 1/106 x COS 57 => 1/106 x 1/1.83 => 1:194
Using the same formula again,
Scale at equator (1/194) = Scale at 27° x COS 27°
Therefore, scale at 27° = 1/194 x 1/COS 27° => 1/194 x 1/0.89 => 1:173
320 Scale Formula: Scale at Equator = Scale at Lat x COS Lat.
322 Critical Line Numerical: New critical line has to moved in 060 direction. It will be 615 nm (500 + 115) from A.
Mass & Balance, Performance
345 Climb segment Diagram: Segment 1 ends at 35’.
352 Standard Atm. ISA standard atmosphere density is 1.225 kg/m3
356 Density For 1°C rise in temp above ISA, DA increases by 118’.
365 Atm. Stability DALR is RH < 99%. SALR is RH > 99%.
368 TAF format VV030 is Vertical Visibility of 3000ft.
375 Fronts After a warm front passes, temperature & pressure is steady.
390 Winds Coriolis Force: Air moving poleward will deflect east (jet streams), & equator-ward moving air will deflect west (easterly trade winds).
Aeromedical Factors
395 BMI Obese is BMI > 30%
Formulae
409 Rate of Turn Formula: Rate of Turn = g Tanθ/V
409 Radar Duty Cycle = PW x PRP
Max Range = (C x PRI)/2. Min Range = (C x PW)/2
PRF = C/(Range x 2), PRP = (Range x 2)/C
410 SALR SALR = 1.5°/1000’.
412 SCA Numerical: Alter heading by 20° to regain track.
Page Topic Correct Statements
Air Regulations
1-8 Transition Layer It is the airspace layer between TA & TL and is usually < 1500’ thick
1-8 Converging If two aircraft are converging, aircraft that has the other on the right will give way.
1-78 EDTO Threshold time: spelling of ‘Single’
1-83 RNAV vs RNP Table: Last row : RNP 0.3 & not RNP.03
1-91 Fixes Table: Second last row : D55/MAZ & not 255/MAZ
1-96 Nav-aid/comm Data Table : 7th row : ‘Marine Beacon Operation Times’ symbology has to be H + 04 & 15(1)
Aerodynamics
2-7 Cricket ball swing In the ‘Reverse Swing' diagram, labels for the Rough side and the Smooth side are the other way around.
2-34 Manoeuvre stability First line: ‘trimmed state’ instead to ‘trimmed starting’
Aero Engines
3-16 Turbo Fan Instead of’ printed twice.
3-20 Fuel Octane Rating Normal Heptane : Detonates Readily.
Instruments
6-3, 6-7, 6-8 Pitot System ASI Mach meter Correct statements for Blockage Error table (ASI/Mach meter) are:
Pitot Block : Climb - over read, Descend - under read
Static Block : Climb - under read, Descend - over read
Static Leak : Pressurised a/c: Under read, Unpressurised a/c: Over read
6-10 Compass Swing Coeff C diagram on the right depicts ‘Aircraft magnetism on Lateral Axis’ & not ‘Longitudinal Axis'
Navigation
8-28 PCTL A method of losing time in which aircraft turns late after reaching a waypoint, and intercepts the next track
Meteorology
10-3 Isallobar Line joining places of same pressure change, in a time period
10-3 Isogon Line joining places of same wind direction, not ‘constant speed’
10-3 Isohel Line joining places of equal sunshine duration.
Formulae
B-1 Radar Formula PRF = C/(Range x 2), PRP = (Range x 2)/C
Page Topic Correct Statements
Aerodynamics
2-43 Factors affecting ROC In Formula box, 'Climb Gradient' = ROC/TAS; not 'Angle of Climb'
2-48 Endurance VMP gives the best Endurance speed for Props, not Range speed. VMD gives the best Endurance speed for Jets, not Range speed
Instruments
6-14 Apparent wander Apparent wander in vertical axis gyro. Point 3. No 'topple' at poles instead of 'drift'
Radio & Nav Aids
7-13 Static in Precipitation This ' decreases' the signal to noise ratio. Not 'increases'.
7-26, 7-41 Weather Radar Numerical Height of Cloud-top is ' 39500 ft'. Not '40000 ft'.
Navigation
8-13 Lamberts conic Advantages: Since GC are staring lines. Not ‘GS’
Mass, Balance, Performance
9-7 LDR Landing Distance Required LDR x 1.92 if runway is wet or a grass-runway. (115% of 1.67 × LDR), not 1.62
Meteorology
10-3 Isallobar Line joining places of same pressure change, in a time period
10-3 Isogon Line joining places of same wind direction, not ‘constant speed’
10-3 Isohel Line joining places of equal sunshine duration.
FORMULAE
B-1 Radar Formula PRF = C/(Range x 2), PRP = (Range x 2)/C

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