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Updates and Corrections
Page | Topic | Correct Statements |
---|---|---|
Air Regulations | ||
7 | Class I Medicals | Validity is 12 months till age 40 yrs (for single pilot operations), & 60 yrs (for multi crew operations). After that 6 months. |
7 | Licence Validity | Licence validity is 5 years. Beyond 5 years: (Not expiry of IR.PPC) |
8 | ADIZ | India has 6 ADIZ: North, East, West, Centre, South and Sub-South East (Andaman & Nicobar). |
10 | Air regulations Definitions |
VFR Rules: VFR flight not permitted 20 mins after sunset to 20 mins before sunrise. VFR not permitted if cloud ceiling is at a height < 1550’. At a height < 500’ above ground or water. Over cities/gatherings of people, at a height < 1000’ AGL. |
65 | RVSM | Diagram : On westerly heading Turning left descend 300’. |
66 | ETOPS |
60 min for scheduled flights or 2 eng a/c with pax > 19, AUW > 45360kg. 90 min for non scheduled or 2 eng a/c with pax < 19, AUW < 45360kg. |
92 | FPL Item 15 | If meters, insert ‘M’ in 10s of meters 4 figures, e.g. M0150. |
Aerodynamics | ||
101 | TAS | TAS = EAS/√ρ/ρ0. |
105 | Root Chord | Definition: Root chord is Chord length at wing root. |
106 | AD Centre | Diagram: Points A & B are interchanged. |
108 | Creation of lift | Diagram: At 4° AoA has -ve pressure. |
109 | Lift Curve |
As Aspect Ratio ↑, CL MAX ↑. Lift vs CL graph for a +ve camber aerofoil intersect on left of origin. |
101 | LSS | Formula: LSS = 39√T. |
112 | Induced Downawsh | In conventional aircraft, downwash affects airflow over tailplane, hence ↓ stability. (Aircraft longitudinal stability) |
112 | Induced Drag | Formula: CDI = CL2 / πAe |
113 | Induced Drag | Induced drag DI is directly proportional to CL2. |
115 | Ground Effect | Downwash over tail plane ↓ = nose pitch-down moment ↑. |
117 | Basic stall speed | Landing gear DOWN ↑ stall speed due to ↑ tail down-force. |
119 | Pitch Up | This results in moment-arm between CP and CG to decrease, thus causing even more pitch-up. |
129 | Stability | All 3 stability is ‘about’; not ‘along’ the axes mentioned. |
132 | Lateral Stability | Aerodynamic Damping in roll causes Neutral Stability. |
131 | Directional Stability | Dorsal fins contribute to both directional and lateral static stability; Ventral fins contribute to directional static stability but reduces lateral static stability. |
132 | Wing Position | Diagram: Labels of Anhedral & Dihedral are the other way around. |
141 | Descend | Derivation: Power for minimum ROD Cotθ = L/D. |
142 | Steady Turn | Rate of turn is inversely proportional to TAS. Thrust Vectoring: Mig-29 doesn’t have thrust vectoring. Mig-35 has. |
143 | Wing Loading | W/S wing loading must be minimum. Not S/W |
143 | Radius of turn | Derivation: r = Vb2 / gSinθ. |
143 | Max rate of turn | CPF = WV2/gr. |
144 | Range | SAR directly proportional to 1.32 VIMD, and inversely proportional to √W, √ρ, SFC. |
145 | Supersonic AD | As aircraft weight ↑, MCRIT ↓ due to increase in AoA. |
Airframe | ||
160 | Miners rule | 80% of ultimate stress collapses airframe. |
Aero Engines | ||
187 | Turbofan Engine | Corrected formula : VJ VA - VA2 + ½ VJ2 + ½ VA2 - VJ VA |
190 | Intake | Diagram Label: 1. Critical operation, 3. Super critical operation |
197 | Combustion | 15:1 air:fuel ratio. |
209 | Lubrication | Parts of Engine Oil System incorrectly mentioned as 'Parts of Engine Fuel System' |
Electrics | ||
217 | Current | Current flowing in a circuit is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. |
Instruments | ||
241 | ASI | Servo ASI, incorrectly mentioned as Servo Altimeter |
242 | LSS | Formula: LSS = 39√T. |
Radio & Nav Aids | ||
270 | Sidebands | This full range of frequencies (899 kHz - 901 kHz). |
271 | Communication | Sat. comm. Satellite receives signals on 6 GHz & re-transmits them on 1.5 GHz (for aircraft) & and on 4 GHz (for ground stations). |
282 | Localiser Fq | Correct frequencies are 108.1, 108.15, 108.3…etc. |
283 | ILS Marker | Middle marker corresponds to ILS CAT I DH |
285 | Radar Numerical |
Q. PRI is 1246 µs. Find max radar range? Ans. Max Range = C x PRI / 2 = (3x108 x 1246x10-5) / 2 = 187 km |
285 | Range | A continuous wave Radar has no minimum range limitation. |
285 | Radar | Formula: Minimum Range = (C x PW)/2 |
286 | Doppler radar | 8.8 GHz or 13.3 GHz in SHF. |
289 | Weather Radar | Weather radar scans ±60° of aircraft heading. |
294 | GBAS | GBAS ground equipment can service, not GABS |
294 | GAGAN | Correct Full form: GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation |
296 | EGPWS | If radio altimeter is un-serviceable, basic GPWS & TCF functions are not available, but TAD is available. |
297 | EGPWS modes |
Bank angle readout is Mode 6B; not mode 7 Wind shear alert is mode 7; not mode 8. |
300 | ADS-B | Title spelling: Dependent; not Depended. ADSB-in, not ABSB-in |
301 | CPDLC | fill COM/CPDLC in items 10 & 18, not CPLDC. |
Navigation | ||
309 | Time | Numerical (2) explanation: From LMT at E to UTC, we calculate in westward direction, hence it is -W. |
310 | Magnetism |
Radial is QDR. Deviation is the angle between CN & MN, measured E/W of MN |
313 | The Earth | 1 nm is 6076.1’ (~6080’), 6048’ at the equator, 6108’ at poles |
318 | GEOREF | Diagram Y axis, 12x15 deg boxes, not 15x15 deg boxes |
320 | Scale Numerical |
Q. On a Mercator chart, scale at 57° is 1:106, Find scale at 27°? Ans. Scale at equator = 1/106 x COS 57 => 1/106 x 1/1.83 => 1:194 Using the same formula again, Scale at equator (1/194) = Scale at 27° x COS 27° Therefore, scale at 27° = 1/194 x 1/COS 27° => 1/194 x 1/0.89 => 1:173 |
320 | Scale | Formula: Scale at Equator = Scale at Lat x COS Lat. |
322 | Critical Line | Numerical: New critical line has to moved in 060 direction. It will be 615 nm (500 + 115) from A. |
Mass & Balance, Performance | ||
345 | Climb segment | Diagram: Segment 1 ends at 35’. |
352 | Standard Atm. | ISA standard atmosphere density is 1.225 kg/m3 |
356 | Density | For 1°C rise in temp above ISA, DA increases by 118’. |
365 | Atm. Stability | DALR is RH < 99%. SALR is RH > 99%. |
368 | TAF format | VV030 is Vertical Visibility of 3000ft. |
375 | Fronts | After a warm front passes, temperature & pressure is steady. |
390 | Winds | Coriolis Force: Air moving poleward will deflect east (jet streams), & equator-ward moving air will deflect west (easterly trade winds). |
Aeromedical Factors | ||
395 | BMI | Obese is BMI > 30% |
Formulae | ||
409 | Rate of Turn | Formula: Rate of Turn = g Tanθ/V |
409 | Radar |
Duty Cycle = PW x PRP Max Range = (C x PRI)/2. Min Range = (C x PW)/2 PRF = C/(Range x 2), PRP = (Range x 2)/C |
410 | SALR | SALR = 1.5°/1000’. |
412 | SCA | Numerical: Alter heading by 20° to regain track. |
Page | Topic | Correct Statements |
---|---|---|
Air Regulations | ||
1-8 | Transition Layer | It is the airspace layer between TA & TL and is usually < 1500’ thick |
1-8 | Converging | If two aircraft are converging, aircraft that has the other on the right will give way. |
1-78 | EDTO | Threshold time: spelling of ‘Single’ |
1-83 | RNAV vs RNP | Table: Last row : RNP 0.3 & not RNP.03 |
1-91 | Fixes | Table: Second last row : D55/MAZ & not 255/MAZ |
1-96 | Nav-aid/comm Data | Table : 7th row : ‘Marine Beacon Operation Times’ symbology has to be H + 04 & 15(1) |
Aerodynamics | ||
2-7 | Cricket ball swing | In the ‘Reverse Swing' diagram, labels for the Rough side and the Smooth side are the other way around. |
2-34 | Manoeuvre stability | First line: ‘trimmed state’ instead to ‘trimmed starting’ |
Aero Engines | ||
3-16 | Turbo Fan | Instead of’ printed twice. |
3-20 | Fuel Octane Rating | Normal Heptane : Detonates Readily. |
Instruments | ||
6-3, 6-7, 6-8 | Pitot System ASI Mach meter |
Correct statements for Blockage Error table (ASI/Mach meter) are: Pitot Block : Climb - over read, Descend - under read Static Block : Climb - under read, Descend - over read Static Leak : Pressurised a/c: Under read, Unpressurised a/c: Over read |
6-10 | Compass Swing | Coeff C diagram on the right depicts ‘Aircraft magnetism on Lateral Axis’ & not ‘Longitudinal Axis' |
Navigation | ||
8-28 | PCTL | A method of losing time in which aircraft turns late after reaching a waypoint, and intercepts the next track |
Meteorology | ||
10-3 | Isallobar | Line joining places of same pressure change, in a time period |
10-3 | Isogon | Line joining places of same wind direction, not ‘constant speed’ |
10-3 | Isohel | Line joining places of equal sunshine duration. |
Formulae | ||
B-1 | Radar Formula | PRF = C/(Range x 2), PRP = (Range x 2)/C |
Page | Topic | Correct Statements |
---|---|---|
Aerodynamics | ||
2-43 | Factors affecting ROC | In Formula box, 'Climb Gradient' = ROC/TAS; not 'Angle of Climb' |
2-48 | Endurance | VMP gives the best Endurance speed for Props, not Range speed. VMD gives the best Endurance speed for Jets, not Range speed |
Instruments | ||
6-14 | Apparent wander | Apparent wander in vertical axis gyro. Point 3. No 'topple' at poles instead of 'drift' |
Radio & Nav Aids | ||
7-13 | Static in Precipitation | This ' decreases' the signal to noise ratio. Not 'increases'. |
7-26, 7-41 | Weather Radar Numerical | Height of Cloud-top is ' 39500 ft'. Not '40000 ft'. |
Navigation | ||
8-13 | Lamberts conic | Advantages: Since GC are staring lines. Not ‘GS’ |
Mass, Balance, Performance | ||
9-7 | LDR Landing Distance Required | LDR x 1.92 if runway is wet or a grass-runway. (115% of 1.67 × LDR), not 1.62 |
Meteorology | ||
10-3 | Isallobar | Line joining places of same pressure change, in a time period |
10-3 | Isogon | Line joining places of same wind direction, not ‘constant speed’ |
10-3 | Isohel | Line joining places of equal sunshine duration. |
FORMULAE | ||
B-1 | Radar Formula | PRF = C/(Range x 2), PRP = (Range x 2)/C |